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Upcoming Events

Oct
19
10:00 AM10:00

Arch in the Park

The San Diego County Archaeological Society (SDCAS) will be celebrating California Archaeology Month and International Archaeology Day on Saturday, October 20th, 2018 as part of our annual Arch in the Park event. The event will be held at the Los Penasquitos Ranch House at 12122 Canyonside Park Drive San Diego, CA 92129. Our goal is to educate the public about archaeology and to provide information on various career and volunteer opportunities with local archaeological companies and organizations. There will also be activities and games for kids. Join SDCAS for a fun-filled outing!

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July Lecture - Geomicrobiology Experiments on Desert Varnish, Rubification, and Encrusting Caliche in the Anza Borrego Desert
Jul
27
8:00 PM20:00

July Lecture - Geomicrobiology Experiments on Desert Varnish, Rubification, and Encrusting Caliche in the Anza Borrego Desert

Topic: Geomicrobiology Experiments on Desert Varnish, Rubification, and Encrusting Caliche in the Anza Borrego Desert

Speaker: Eleanora (Norrie) Robbins

A trio of substances is found on rocks and artifacts in the Anza-Borrego Desert. Black/brown desert varnish composed primarily of manganese oxides is the best known. But the undersides of artifacts often have red iron oxide which is called rubification (see photo). Furthermore, some artifacts have a rim of white calcium carbonate that is otherwise called caliche.

Having a geomicrobiology background, I tend to focus on supposedly abiotic chemical reactions that, instead, are catalyzed by bacteria. Elusive timing for these reactions in the desert makes it a challenge to run microbial experiments. For example, research is suggesting that desert varnish may be related to ice-age climatic regimes when the desert was subjected to way more rainfall and colder weather. The closest we can come to this ancient regime is to run experiments over very long time scales that include many rainy seasons and winters.

With that caveat, I used a microbial ecology technique of putting out microscope slides on boulders and rocks in the desert. I put them out in 2002 and studied the microbial populations that colonized them since then. Mn-oxidizing Leptothrix discophora is present on several sets I pulled in 2016. So Mn-oxidizing bacteria do participate in Mn fixation in desert varnish.

Rubification experiments started in 2019 haven’t yielded any results yet. But my hypothesis is that water standing under rocks and artifacts during the rainy season supports iron oxidizing bacteria that are reacting to reduced iron minerals in the sediment. Calcification experiments started in 2019 haven’t yielded any results yet either. But my hypothesis is that water standing around the rims of rocks and artifacts is ideal habitat for photosynthetic cyanobacteria that precipitate CaCO3. An interesting observation is that white quartz and feldspar pebbles and artifacts have green rims from colonizing cyanobacteria. It will be interesting to compare species entombed by caliche with those forming dark green rims.

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Field trip: Edgemoor Barn, Santee
Jul
20
11:00 AM11:00

Field trip: Edgemoor Barn, Santee

 Date: July 20, 2019

Time: 11:00 am

Address: Edgemoor Barn, 9200 Magnolia Avenue, Santee

Cost: FREE

*RSVP by July 18 to reserve your spot: info@sdcas.org

Calling our East County friends! The tour will include a guided look at the history of East County and Santee, as well as the Edgemoor Farm during the early twentieth century. Feel free to explore the grounds on your own following the tour.

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June Lecture - Journey through the Kumeyaay Cosmos
Jun
22
8:00 PM20:00

June Lecture - Journey through the Kumeyaay Cosmos

Speaker: Ral Christman, Sr.

Topic: Journey through the Kumeyaay Cosmos

Since time and memorial, The original people of the San Diego region, The Kumeyaay, have used the Cosmos to navigate their existence. While the physical world is ever evolving and dynamic, the constellations have remained. The Kumeyaay have used the cosmos as a constant reminder and diagram of the Kumeyaay collective of generational knowledge. Kumeyaay traditional Bird Songs and Oral Tradition have embedded these understandings of the physical, intellectual and spiritual world. This lecture will explain those relationships as well as shine further light on the totality of what is The Kumeyaay Journey.

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May Lecture - Watchtowers and Computers
May
28
7:30 PM19:30

May Lecture - Watchtowers and Computers

Title: Watchtowers and Computers

Speaker: Alberto B. Foglia

Alberto B. Foglia will present his Master's thesis on the possible functions of the turret structures on Hadrian's Wall. In the 2nd century, Roman Emperor Hadrian constructed a series of frontier works across northern Britain to consolidate this northern corner of the Roman Empire. However, how the frontier, and the component structures of the wall, operated is still debated. Alberto created a GIS to perform a viewshed analysis of the smallest structures on the Wall, the so-called 'turrets', to see how well they performed as watch towers.

He will also present on some work he has been doing on making 3D reconstructions of parts of Hadrian's Wall.

Alberto is an archaeologist and GIS specialist at PanGIS. His graduate studies involved using GIS to assess the surveillance capabilities of the towers built into Hadrian’s Wall in Northern England. His extensive skill set includes ArcGIS Online Web App development, photogrammetry, and 3D modeling. He has been working with PanGIS’ Remote Sensing team, using his skills to enhance the 3D models derived from sUAS (drone) and fixed-wing flights.

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April Lecture - Ashes from Ashes: Archaeologists and Forensic Dogs Recovering Lost Human Remains
Apr
23
7:30 PM19:30

April Lecture - Ashes from Ashes: Archaeologists and Forensic Dogs Recovering Lost Human Remains

Ashes from Ashes: Archaeologists and Forensic Dogs Recovering Lost Human Remains

Speaker: Natalie Brodie

In this lecture, archaeologist Natalie Brodie will discuss current efforts to recover cremated human remains following a massive wild fire in Butte County. Volunteer archaeologists have been paired  with trained forensic dogs and handlers to search for cremated remains in the wreckage. Ms. Brodie will discuss the process used by the archaeologists, the remarkable results of the effort, and the value of the archaeological process for remains recovery. Note this presentation will show photographs of cremated human remains.

Natalie Brodie is a professional archaeologist here in San Diego. She is the current Second Vice President for the San Diego County Archaeological Society and is also a past-President of the Society. Ms. Brodie’s interests include historical archaeology, the history of water development, and GIS applications.

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March Lecture - Using Earth’s Magnetic Field to Determine the Age of  Heat-Treated Archaeological Materials
Mar
26
7:30 PM19:30

March Lecture - Using Earth’s Magnetic Field to Determine the Age of Heat-Treated Archaeological Materials

Speaker: Shelby Jones-Cervantes

Shelby Jones-Cervantes will give a presentation on her current archaeomagnetic dating research and the methods behind this mode of dating heat treated archaeological material. She studies pottery types from the 4 Corners area and does experimental archaeology to replicate ancient pottery-making techniques so they can determine cooling time (this effects how much of the magnetic signature is retained in the material). Shelby is using archaeological pottery sherds to study the earth’s past magnetic field, and while she’s at it, getting a more accurate calibration for dating artifacts using this method.

Shelby Jones-Cervantes is a PhD candidate at Scripps Institute of Oceangraphy studying earth’s magnetic field. She is expected to finish her dissertation in August 2019.

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February Lecture- Kumeyaay Land Essence
Feb
26
7:30 PM19:30

February Lecture- Kumeyaay Land Essence

Speaker: Ral Christman, M.A.

About the Presenter: Ral Christman Sr is a member of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay, and a traditional Kumeyaay Oral Historian. Trained by his father, Ral is a Bird Singer and Kumeyaay Creation story teller. Ral has instructed courses in Kumeyaay History, Humanities and language at various educational institutions such as SDSU, Cuyamaca College, and Kumeyaay Community College.

Abstract:

This presentation will give an overview of the Traditional Kumeyaay Creation Story, precise locations, and its transformations into the present. Special attention will be provided to better understand Oral tradition versus the written word and the impact of a non linear understanding of the human record. The lecture will also focus on methods of traditional knowledge retention amongst the Kumeyaay, and its practical use in modern society and archeology.  Symbolic designs, numerology, and cosmology will be discussed. Kumeyaay Bird Songs will accompany this presentation.

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Archaeology Weekend 2019- Anza Borrego Desert State Park
Feb
23
to Feb 24

Archaeology Weekend 2019- Anza Borrego Desert State Park

Join the Colorado Desert Archaeology Society and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park for a weekend filled with the archaeology of this beautiful desert. Events will be happening on Saturday and Sunday outside of the Visitor Center, presentations will be happening in the Discovery Lab inside the Visitor Center on Saturday, and field trips will be scheduled.

Check this space for more info closer to the date or check here:

https://www.anzaborregoarchaeo.org/archaeology-weekend-2019/

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ArchaeoCon
Jan
5
10:00 AM10:00

ArchaeoCon

  • Marriott Marquis San Diego Marina (map)
  • Google Calendar ICS

SDCAS to host table at AIA’s 2019 ArchaeoCon 2019 Event

The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) will be celebrating its 140th birthday in a big way. The organization is putting on a conference aptly named ArchaeoCon. The event is to be held January 5, 2019 in downtown San Diego at the Marriot Marquis Hotel. ArchaeoCon is free for the public.

Visitors can expect to find demonstrations, activities, archaeology presentations, and of course, SDCAS! Headlining the event is Sarah Parcak, space archaeologist, and Egyptologist and Josh Gates, archaeologist and host of the Travel Channel series Expedition Unknown and Legendary Locations. Stop by the SDCAS table while you there to buy the latest merchandise, learn more about what we do, and participate in a fun activity.

ArchaeoCon will coincide with AIA’s 120th Annual Meeting that will be held from January 3 through January 6th. The annual meeting is expected to draw around 2,500 archaeologists and Classicists. You do not have to register to attend ArchaeoCon. Visit AIA’s website for more information:

https://www.archaeological.org/news/aianewsannualmeeting/29587.

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Whaley House Tour
Nov
13
6:30 PM18:30

Whaley House Tour

Join us for a spooky time… at the Whaley House in Old Town. Learn about the Whaley family, San Diego life in the 1800s, and maybe even some paranormal activity. The tour will kick off at 6:30 pm. The first 15 SDCAS members to sign up are FREE but you must book your spot quickly. Non-members can join in on the fun for a cost of $6. We may not be able to accomodate all interested guests, so please RSVP as soon as possible.

RSVP to info@sdcas.org by November 10th. Please let us know how many in your party are members and how many are non-members when RSVP’ing.

See you there!

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JDRF One Walk
Nov
10
8:00 AM08:00

JDRF One Walk

Visit SDCAS booth that will be at the JDRF One Walk in Balboa Park.

JDRF One Walk has one goal: to create a world without type 1 diabetes (T1D). We know you want to make a cure a reality too—and we can't wait for you to join us!

When you participate in your local JDRF One Walk, the money you raise supports life–changing breakthroughs that give hope to everyone impacted by this disease. And, you'll have a great time doing it! That's because you'll walk with a committed community that is passionate about doing whatever it takes to help turn Type One into Type None.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that strikes children and adults suddenly. It has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle—and it's serious and stressful to manage. There is nothing you can do to prevent T1D and there is currently no cure. But there is something you can do to help. Please register to walk with us today. We can't do it without you.

Visit this link for more information:

https://www2.jdrf.org/site/TR?fr_id=7509&pg=entry

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Rock Art Symposium
Nov
3
9:00 AM09:00

Rock Art Symposium

The 43rd annual Rock Art Symposium will be held on November 3rd at San Diego Community College District Educational Cultural Complex Theatre, 4343 Ocean View Blvd. San Diego, CA  92113.

To register or get more info, please visit:

https://www.sandiegorockart.org/symposium.html

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October Lecture- It’s Bedlam Out There: The Dark History and  Study of Asylums
Oct
23
7:30 PM19:30

October Lecture- It’s Bedlam Out There: The Dark History and Study of Asylums

SDCAS is proud to present another chilling Halloween themed lecture, given by our resident supernatural (and archaeological/anthropological) experts. Quarantines, decrepit buildings, and hauntings. Asylums of many different types have long been associated with images of dank towers, long corridors, and nefarious staff. Why are some of the scariest places on earth also places where people were once sent for healing and hope? In this year’s talk we explore the history of sanitariums, and asylums in the western world beginning in the medieval period through to the early 20th century. A cautionary note that this presentation may include photos of human remains.

Presenters:

Karen Lacy has over 18 years of museum and writing experience as well as a Master’s degree in Museum Science and a Bachelor’s in History with minors in Art History and Anthropology. She recently completed a second Masters in Anthropology at San Diego State University. Karen co-founded Muse Curatorial Consulting Group, a company that specializes in collections care, training, grant writing, and exhibit development of archaeological, historic, library and archive materials. Previously, Karen was the Collections Manager of the San Diego Museum of Man for seven years and the Curator of Exhibits of the San Diego Air & Space Museum for 5 years.

Sandra Pentney has called herself an archaeologist for 18 years. Born, raised and educated in Canada, she moved to the US after said education showed her that choosing a career based mostly on being out of doors in a climate where the out of doors was frozen and under two feet of snow for 5 months of the year wasn’t the best choice. She spent the first five years in the U.S. enjoying fieldwork in the very temperate climate of California, and now is firmly planted indoors at a desk for 49 weeks out of the year. Sandra received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, and her Master of Arts in Archaeology from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, which no one outside of Canada seems to be able to pronounce.

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Arch in the Park
Oct
20
10:00 AM10:00

Arch in the Park

The San Diego County Archaeological Society (SDCAS) will be celebrating California Archaeology Month and International Archaeology Day on Saturday, October 20th, 2018 as part of our annual Arch in the Park event. The event will be held at the Los Penasquitos Ranch House at 12122 Canyonside Park Drive San Diego, CA 92129. Our goal is to educate the public about archaeology and to provide information on various career and volunteer opportunities with local archaeological companies and organizations. There will also be activities and games for kids. Join SDCAS for a fun-filled outing!

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SCA Southern Data Sharing Meeting
Oct
6
9:00 AM09:00

SCA Southern Data Sharing Meeting

The SCA and the Anthropology Department at California State University Channel Islands are proud to collaborate on the 2018 Southern Data Sharing meeting in Camarillo, California on Saturday, October 6, 2018. Directions and details about the meeting room location and parking on campus will be provided in the near future.

Presentations will begin on Saturday morning, October 6th at 9 am on the CSU Channel Islands campus. Coffee/tea and pastries with be provided in the morning, as well as a catered lunch in the afternoon.  

If you are interested in presenting a paper, reserving a camping spot, or volunteering to help at the event contact Sarah Nicchitta, SCA Southern Vice President, at SNicchitta@AlbionEnvironmental.com. Check out the SCA website and Facebook page for updated information.

Check this link for the most up to date information:

https://scahome.org/future-meetings/

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"Celebrating the Art in Archaeology"- Opening Reception
Oct
5
5:00 PM17:00

"Celebrating the Art in Archaeology"- Opening Reception

Join SDCAS and California State Parks for an opening reception of the Celebrating the Art in Archaeology Art Show. The reception will be from 5 pm to 8 pm at the California State Parks office at Liberty Station, 2797 Truxtun Road, Barracks 26, San Diego, CA 92106. Members of the public are welcome!

Come view the art, have a delicious snack, and vote for your favorite art work!

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“No es lo mismo llamar al diablo que verlo venir”: climate change, changing weather and archaeological heritage as seen from Puerto Rico.
Sep
22
8:00 PM20:00

“No es lo mismo llamar al diablo que verlo venir”: climate change, changing weather and archaeological heritage as seen from Puerto Rico.

A popular proverb in Puerto Rico warns that “it is not the same thing to call the devil than to see him come”. For many years scientists have been warning about the potential impacts of climate change. In the last five to ten years archaeologists have been linking those impacts to heritage. These past two years, 2017 and 2018, have demonstrated the real-life meaning of changing weather – which eventually will add up to changed climate – and it is not the same to see the devil come. In the context of rapidly changing weather, heritage is a tool for adaptation, for recovery of lost knowledge, and for communication of locally relevant climate science. But at the same time, this reality puts heritage professionals at the front of a social, physical and cultural disaster that is simply overwhelming. This presentation will share the experiences of working with archaeological heritage and climate change research in Puerto Rico before, during and after a record-breaking catastrophic year of hurricanes and winter storms, and will contextualize the work of archaeology in the practicality of equity and justice from within the communities themselves.

Isabel Rivera-Collazo is Assistant Professor on Biological, Ecological and Human Adaptations to Climate Change at the Department of Anthropology and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Dr. Rivera-Collazo is an environmental archaeologist specializing on geoarchaeology, archaeomalacology, coastal and marine processes, maritime culture and climate change, with regional interests in Puerto Rico, the Caribbean Basin and the Neotropics (Pan Caribbean region); Israel and the eastern Mediterranean. Her research focuses on the effect that human activity has over island ecosystems through time, as well as how have people responded to climatic and environmental change in the past. Dr. Rivera-Collazo’s work focuses on resilience and adaptation, investigating what decisions enhance or reduce adaptive success. Taking an applied approach, Dr. Rivera-Collazo also works with local communities in the quest for understanding the current and expected impacts of climate change, including threats to coastal heritage.  Dr. Isabel Rivera-Collazo has a MSc degree on Palaeoecology of Human Societies and a PhD on Environmental Archaeology both from the Institute of Archaeology,University College London. She is also Research Fellow of the Center of Tropical Ecology and Conservation (CATEC) and the Laboratory of Environmental Archaeology at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus.

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“Celebrating the Art in Archaeology” Art Show Entry Deadline
Aug
31
8:30 AM08:30

“Celebrating the Art in Archaeology” Art Show Entry Deadline

Calling all artists! August 31, 2018 is the entry deadline for the Fourth Annual “Celebrating the Art in Archaeology” art show. To enter go to https://bit.ly/4ArchArt for art show info and entry form or email ArchaeologyArtShow@gmail.com for questions or other information.

Please find more information under the Art Show header on our website.

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August Lecture: Post-Disaster Archaeology
Aug
25
8:00 PM20:00

August Lecture: Post-Disaster Archaeology

Presenters: Natalie Brodie, Rachel Droessler, and Patrick McGinnis

Join the SDCAS for a panel discussion of the challenges and unique experiences associated with protecting and managing cultural resources following natural disasters. Panel participants have completed archaeological studies following fires and hurricanes, and will discuss a variety of topics from agency resources, and working collaboratively with emergency responders.

Natalie Brodie is a Senior Cultural Resources Manager with LSA, and has been working as a professional archaeologist for the past 16 years. Ms. Brodie managed a team of archaeologists and biologists to respond to a series of wildfires in 2015-2016, in support of Southern California Edison. She is the current Second Vice President for the San Diego County Archaeological Society and is also a past-President of the Society. Ms. Brodie’s interests include historical archaeology, the history of water development, and GIS applications.

Rachel Droessler is an archaeologist and GIS specialist with ICF and has been working as a professional archaeologist for the past 8 years. Ms. Droessler served as a consultant program delivery manager for FEMA in Texas in support of the Hurricane Harvey disaster response. The program delivery manager position involves project management; primarily coordinating efforts between project applicants and internal FEMA teams, including the environmental group. Ms. Droessler served this role during the implementation of a new project delivery system from 2017-2018. She has also served as an archaeologist and GIS specialist for several local FEMA mitigation projects. She is the current Social Media board member for the San Diego County Archaeological Society and her interests include historical archaeology, San Diego history, Mesoamerican archaeology, and GIS applications.

Patrick McGinnis is a Senior Archaeologist with ICF and has been working as a professional archaeologist for 22 years. Mr. McGinnis was a former Secretary for the San Diego County Archaeologist Society. Mr. McGinnis served as a consultant environmental specialist for FEMA in New York in support of the Hurricane Sandy disaster response from 2012-2016. He also served a similar role for several FEMA mitigation projects including in American Samoa in support of the disaster response for the 2009 earthquake and tsunami. His interests include precontact archaeology, historical archaeology, and architectural history.

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Polynesian Settlement and Heritage Management at Western Raiatea
Jul
28
8:00 PM20:00

Polynesian Settlement and Heritage Management at Western Raiatea

John O’Connor, RPA

University of Oregon and ECORP Consulting, Inc.

The Society Islands are of primary importance for understanding settlement patterns and human impacts among initial colonizing populations in East Polynesia. Archaeology on the island of Raiatea serves multiple roles in terms of academic research, archaeological and ecological conservation, and cultural education for island residents. Excavations at the megalithic Marae Tainuu have revealed changes in land use that are instrumental to understanding environmental and social change in the area of Tevaitoa, including pre-contact and post-contact effects on the coastal landscape analogous to other areas of the Leeward Group. The exposure of early architecture, hearth features, subsistence remains, and evidence for the manufacture and use of lithic tools gives insight into the spatiotemporal organization of human activity at this important heritage site. Ongoing research at Tevaitoa is helping to define the history of human activity at western Raiatea with consequences for local environmental management and community outreach. This work contributes to archaeological knowledge in Central East Polynesia, a corpus of information from which we can establish an archaeological baseline for human occupation at Raiatea and expand global knowledge of human-environmental interactions in island and coastal contexts.

John O’Connor is a Registered Professional Archaeologist, a Ph.D. candidate and Instructor at the University of Oregon Department of Anthropology, and the Cultural Resources Specialist for ECORP Consulting, Inc., in San Diego, California. His dissertation work concerns settlement chronology and human impacts on coastal ecosystems at Raiatea, Leeward Society Islands, French Polynesia. John works on professional resource management projects throughout California and the Hawaiian Islands, in addition to teaching and research activities in Oregon, French Polynesia, and the Kingdom of Tonga. John passionately supports the ethical management of natural and cultural resources, with supplementary interests in indigenous philosophy, traditional ecological knowledge, natural resource law, and environmental conservation and protection.

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Remaining Undocumented: Immigrant Youth Living Outside of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
Jun
26
7:30 PM19:30

Remaining Undocumented: Immigrant Youth Living Outside of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals

This study compares individuals who did not apply to the DACA program to those that did. It asks how immigrants decide to apply to programs that transition out of illegality, and looks at the chronic vulnerable availability created by the state through spaces of liminal legality and processes that are meant to transition out of illegality.

I am an anthropologist who has been studying immigrant youth since 2010. In my most recent research, I interviewed DACA graduate studentsabout the impacts of DACA’s forced name alteration.

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The Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic and the 150-year Search for the Fate of the Crew
May
22
7:30 PM19:30

The Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic and the 150-year Search for the Fate of the Crew

On May 19th, 1845 two ships left England in search of the fabled Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic to the Orient. Under the leadership of Captain Sir John Franklin, 128 men crewed the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror for what was planned to be a two-year expedition. 

This presentation will outline the known facts of the expedition, and the 150-year search for the fate of the crew.

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Guided Trip to Two Archaeological Sites Within Anza-Borrego Desert State Park
May
5
9:00 AM09:00

Guided Trip to Two Archaeological Sites Within Anza-Borrego Desert State Park

Join the San Diego County Archaeological Society for a guided trip to two archaeological sites within Anza-Borrego Desert State Park!

When: Saturday, May 5, 2018, 9:00am

Where: Blair Valley Campground Kiosk, Anza-Borrego Desert State Park

Who: We’ll be joined by experienced guides, Sam Webb and  Gary Holmes

What: Guided tours for both a prehistoric archaeological site and the Ghost Mountain Homestead archaeological site. Both areas are on established trails and we’ll be out there until about mid-day between the two areas. SDCAS will provide lunch and snacks. 

 

Please RSVP by May 1st (up to 20 participants only!) to:

info@sdcas.org with your name and how many people will be joining you. More details will be sent out to participants a few days before the field trip.

 

Looking forward to seeing you out there!

 

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La Rumorosa Rock Art Along the Border: A survey of Kumeyaay and related artwork in Southern California, Colorado River Corridor, Western Arizona and Baja California
Apr
17
7:30 PM19:30

La Rumorosa Rock Art Along the Border: A survey of Kumeyaay and related artwork in Southern California, Colorado River Corridor, Western Arizona and Baja California

“My Powerpoint explains the basis for the rock art in terms of Patayan and Kumeyaay culture. The Kumeyaay are thought to be descendants of the Patayan.  Of the 30-35 slides, nearly all feature vibrant pictographs, some in DStretch format, which is explained.”

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Flaked Stone Symbols: Eccentrics, their meaning, and function in ancient Maya society
Mar
27
7:30 PM19:30

Flaked Stone Symbols: Eccentrics, their meaning, and function in ancient Maya society

These ceremonial artifacts have been the subject of archaeological study for the past 200 years; however, only in the last 30 years, has research focused on the possible symbolic meaning and function of these offerings. This presentation brings a plausible understanding of these artifacts and what they probably represented to their ancient Maya creators.

Image by Michel wal - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5257555

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